Thursday, February 9, 2023


9:37 PM | ,

According to the Standard Model, there are 3 families of elementary particles. When we say 'elementary', scientists mean particles that cannot be broken down into even smaller particles.

The three families are leptons, quarks, and bosons. Leptons and quarks are known as Fermions because they have a half-integer spin. Bosons, on the other hand, have a whole-integer spin. What does this mean?

Spin, in the context of quantum physics, refers to spin angular momentum which is a quantum property intrinsic to each particle, even if that particle is stationary.

Leptons include electrons, muons, tau particles, and their associated neutrinos. Quarks are tiny particles that, when joined together, form composite particles such as protons and neutrons. Particles formed of odd numbers of quarks, usually three, are called baryons, and those made of two quarks are called mesons.

Bosons are force carriers — they transfer the electromagnetic force (photons), the weak force (Z and W bosons), the strong nuclear force (gluons), and the Higgs force (Higgs boson).

Detecting graviton will be no easy feat. Gravity is the weakest of the four fundamental forces. You might not think so, after all, it keeps your feet on the ground, but when you consider that it takes the entire mass of the planet to generate enough gravity to keep your feet on the ground, you might get a sense that gravity isn't as strong as, say, magnetism can be, which can pick up a paperclip against the gravitational pull of Earth.

Consequently, individual gravitons do not interact with matter that easily — they are said to have a low cross-section of interaction. 

For now, gravitons are purely hypothetical.

Ref source: CERN; Space.Com; Keith Cooper

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