Wednesday, April 6, 2022

Black energy and black matter

‘What makes up everything? Back to ancient Greece. It sought an answer to this big question. Many philosophers have attempted to answer this mystery. As a result, Four separate substances were defined: Earth, Water, Fire, and Air. About a hundred years « ether « or « other » joined the list as the fifth element thanks to Aristotle. It is a mythological substance of heaven and stars that Plato used as well to describe the bright, untainted upper atmosphere in which the gods dwell. According to Science and especially Albert Einstein, "the special theory of relativity does not require the denial of ether." He went on to say, "According to the general theory of relativity, space would be impossible without ether." An interesting aspect is the reliance of some theorists on Either or Quintessence with the dark Energy which is the mysterious energy that accelerated the expansion of the universe during inflation.

Since we know how dark energy affects the expansion of the universe, we can estimate its amount. Aside from that, its existence remains an enigma. However, its significance should not be overlooked. Approximately 68% of the universe consists of dark energy. About 27% is dark matter. As for the rest - everything on Earth, all that can be observed with our instruments, is normal matter - only about 5% of the whole universe is made up of normal matter.

Einstein believed that space isn’t ‘nothiing’, yet it remains a mystery due to its various characteristics. One Property is the possibility of many spaces coming into existence. A cosmological constant was defined by Einstein based on the gravity theory and it led some physicists to predict that empty spaces can process their own energies. Therefore, energy is a property of space itself. With more spaces, more of this energy would appear and the universe would expand faster and faster. unfortunately, Einstein's equations for cosmological constant do not explain exactly why or even if its value was the right one to accelerate the universe

It is not easy to define black matter as well. To begin dark means invisible. The evidence shows that there is much too little visible matter in the universe to make up the 27% needed. Dark matter has not the form of normal matter. It is made up of particles called baryons. We could determine its structure from the absorption of radiation passing through baryonic clouds. Furthermore, dark matter is not antimatter, because we are unable to perceive the gamma rays that are produced when antimatter annihilates with matter. Finally, we can rule out large galaxy-sized black holes based on how many gravitational lenses we see. High concentrations of matter bend light passing near them from objects further away, but we do not see enough lensing events to suggest that such objects make up the required 25% dark matter contribution.

Using the Prediction of the cosmological constant, we concluded that Dark Energy is a property of space. Does dark energy have other explanations?

Written by: fatima Ibnoutalib

Foto taken by: Mauro Benjamin Mistretta

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