Friday, July 30, 2021

What is the Superstring theory?

Superstring theory is a theoretical scheme to explain all the fundamental particles and forces of nature in a single theory, which models physical particles and fields as vibrations of thin supersymmetric strings, which move in a space-time of more than four dimensions, more exactly 10 dimensions and a temporal one.

One of the motivations put forward by superstring theorists is that the schema is one of the best candidate theories for formulating a quantum theory of gravity. Superstring theory is a shorthand for supersymmetry string theory because, unlike bosonic string theory, this is the version of string theory that incorporates fermions through supersymmetry.

Superstring theory comprises five theories or alternative formulations of combined string theories, into which supersymmetry requirements have been introduced. The name string theory is currently used synonymously, since all widely studied string theories are, in fact, superstring theories.

The fundamental idea is that the particles are actually strings that vibrate in resonance at a frequency of the Planck length and where the graviton would be a string of spin 2 and zero mass.

Recently it has been possible to prove that several of these formulations are equivalent and behind all of them there could be a unified theory or theory of everything. The five existing theories do not apply more than particular limit cases of this unified theory, provisionally called the M-Theory. This M-theory attempts to explain once all existing subatomic particles and to unify the four fundamental forces of nature. It defines the universe made up of a multitude of vibrating strings, since it is a version of string theory that incorporates fermions and supersymmetry.

The main problem of current physics is to be able to incorporate the force of gravity as explained by the theory of general relativity to the rest of the already unified physical forces. The theory of the superstrings would be a method of unification of these theories. The theory is far from finished and outlined, since there are many undefined variables, so there are several versions of it.

picture of Jesús Odoghersty Pérez. 

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