Tuesday, July 6, 2021

Fate of the universe

What is our universe fate? Well, there are several terrible ways the universe could end. On one end is gravity and the other end is dark energy, that mysterious repulsive force that is hypothesized to be behind the expansion of the universe. With this information let’s go to the scenarios:

1)𝐇𝐞𝐚𝐭 𝐃𝐞𝐚𝐭𝐡:-

Matter is dispersed around the universe as it expands, and its overall entropy increases as well. Eventually stars can’t form due to matter being too dispersed. Then the proton, one of the most fundamental building blocks of everything, decays after 10^40 years. Finally, the black hole, the last natrual complex structures in the universe, would decay in about a googol (10^100) years.

Eventually all processes that sustain entropy would fail. This is when heat death occurs. The universe has achieved a state of maximum entropy. Estimates of eventual heat death range from the somewhat lazy answer of 10^100 years to 10^10^120 years, which is even more than a googolplex.

𝟐) 𝐁𝐢𝐠 𝐂𝐫𝐮𝐧𝐜𝐡:-

The Big Crunch is basically when the see-saw is tipped towards gravity and dark energy somehow runs out. Many scientists don’t think this is going to happen anymore.

Basically the Big Crunch is just the Big Bang but in reverse. The universe contracts insteads of expands and gets hotter instead of cooler. Soon the stars themselves burn away from the temperature outside than inside, while atoms break down into their fundamental parts.

Eventually all of the black holes join together to form a new black hole that would contain the universe; the Big Bang singularity. Then hopefully it can ‘bounce’ back again as a cyclical model.

This could start happening anytime . However, it should probably start, if it will start, trillions of years from now, as the universe is now accelerating in expansion. This probably means that the universe won’t contract any time soon. However if the curvature of the universe is closed it’s likely that it’s going to contract anyways.

𝟑) 𝐁𝐢𝐠 𝐑𝐢𝐩:-

This is when the See-Saw is tipped the other way towards dark energy. What results is dark energy superseding everything, even gravitationally bound objects. This is expressed in an exponentially increasing rate of expansion. Eventually even atoms themselves would be forced to ‘rip’ apart because of dark energy.

The authors of the study that formed this hypothesis, led by Robert Caldwell of Dartmouth College, have estimated that this would probably happen in 22 billion years. The first signs would be shown 65 million years before atoms rip, so, no need to be scared.

The book Last Contact by Stephen Baxter gives an account as to what people on Earth would probably feel like should an event like this happening.

𝟒) 𝐅𝐚𝐥𝐬𝐞 𝐯𝐚𝐜𝐮𝐮𝐦 𝐦𝐞𝐭𝐚𝐬𝐭𝐚𝐛𝐢𝐥𝐢𝐭𝐲 𝐞𝐯𝐞𝐧𝐭:-

We’re moving away from the See-Saw now into what I think is the most terrifying scenario on this list. Why? Because it can literally happen without warning right now. You wouldn’t see it coming. One moment you are reading this and the rest you are dead.

𝐇𝐨𝐰 𝐜𝐚𝐧 𝐬𝐮𝐜𝐡 𝐚𝐧 𝐞𝐯𝐞𝐧𝐭 𝐡𝐚𝐩𝐩𝐞𝐧?

All particles are made of energy states, all wanting to drop to its lowest state known as the ground state. Given the chance these particles will drop to the ground state. And while it might seem the universe, with its uniformity and stableness, is at its ground state, there’s also possibility that it isn’t. If it isn’t, well, we’re screwed.

Given a trigger event, most likely quantum tunnelling, a bubble of ground-state universe; the ‘true vacuum’, would start expanding at the speed of light to swallow up our current universe; the ‘false vacuum’. As it’s expanding at the speed of light, which is the fastest thing in the universe, we would never see it coming.

And can we survive? Well, it’s very likely that inside this ground-state universe, science as we know it would change so much that the universe would be TOTALLY UNINHABITABLE. Plus, all particles would behave differently in this ground-state universe. It would be the end of physics and chemistry as we know it.

5) 𝐓𝐡𝐞 𝐛𝐢𝐠 𝐛𝐨𝐮𝐧𝐜𝐞:-

As you know at the time of big bang, all the matter and energy of the was concentrated at a single point (singularity) . At this state the universe was highly dense and hot. After the big bang the universe started to expand and cool down.

If we consider big bang to be an explosion and the expansion of the universe to be the trajectory due to the explosion. As the expansion continues a point will come when the whole energy responsible for this expansion becomes zero. The universe will no longer expand. On contrary, it will start contracting due to the gravitational pull of the objects in the universe on each other. Eventually all the matter will get concentrated at a single point just like the singularity at the time of big bang. The condition of the universe will be similar to that at the big bang. This conditions can also lead to another big bang. This cycle will continue. This is known as The Big Bounce.

......𝐖𝐡𝐢𝐥𝐞 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐮𝐧𝐢𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐬𝐞 𝐰𝐢𝐥𝐥 𝐞𝐯𝐞𝐧𝐭𝐮𝐚𝐥𝐥𝐲 𝐦𝐞𝐞𝐭 𝐢𝐭'𝐬 𝐟𝐚𝐭𝐞 𝐨𝐧𝐞 𝐝𝐚𝐲, 𝐲𝐨𝐮 𝐝𝐨𝐧'𝐭 𝐧𝐞𝐞𝐝 𝐭𝐨 𝐰𝐨𝐫𝐫𝐲 𝐚𝐛𝐨𝐮𝐭 𝐢𝐭, 𝐛𝐞𝐜𝐚𝐮𝐬𝐞 𝐲𝐨𝐮 𝐰𝐢𝐥𝐥 𝐧𝐨𝐭 𝐛𝐞 𝐭𝐡𝐞𝐫𝐞 𝐭𝐨 𝐬𝐚𝐲 𝐭𝐡𝐚𝐭 "𝐈𝐭 𝐰𝐚𝐬 𝐧𝐢𝐜𝐞 𝐦𝐞𝐞𝐭𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐲𝐨𝐮 𝐚𝐥𝐥!!" 

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